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Names beginning with C

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Caesar was a Roman imperial title. In the New Testament it appears generally without identification of the emperor to whom it refers, save for two passages in Luke's gospel. At the time of Christ's birth the emperor was Augustus (Octavian), while Jesus' public ministry was conducted during the reign of Tiberius. During the long period covered by the book of Acts, the Imperial title was held by Caligula (Gaius), Claudius and Nero, the latter being the emperor at the time of Paul's imprisonment. Matthew 22.17-21; Mark 12.14-17; Luke 2.1; 3.1; 20.22-25; John 19.12-15; Acts 25.8-12, 21, 25; 26.32; 271.24; 28.19

Cain was the first son of Adam and Eve, the brother of Abel, whom he murdered, after God had shown greater favour to Abel's offering. Cain, apparently an arable farmer, was driven into exile by God, but given a mark to protect him from attack. Settling in the land of Nod, east of Eden, he became the father of Enoch. Genesis 4.1-17, 24, 25; Hebrews 11.4; 1 John 3.12; Jude 11

Caiaphas (Joseph Caiaphas) was the son-in-law of Annas, a high priest. Caiaphas was in office at the time of Jesus' arrest, and was one of the principal forces behind the crucifixion. According to John's account, he was inspired to predict that it was well that one man should die for the sake of the whole Jewish people. Acts tells how he was one of the chief opponents of the fledgling church in Jerusalem. Matthew 26.3, 57-66; Luke 3.2; 22.54; John 11.49-52; 18.13, 14, 24, 28; Acts 4.6

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Cainan (1), in Luke's genealogy, is an ancestor of Joseph, the father of Shelah and son of Arphaxad. Luke 3.36

Cainan (2), in Luke's genealogy, is an ancestor of Joseph, the father of Mahalaleel and son of Enos. Luke 3. 37

Calcol was one of the three sons of Mahol, celebrated for their wisdom. The author of 1 Kings shows the measure of Solomon's wisdom by comparing him favourably with Calcol. 1 Kings 4.31

Caleb was the son of Jephunneh, one of twelve spies Joshua sent to reconnoitre Canaan. While the others returned with a tale of near-invincible opposition, Caleb gave a truthful account, showing the conquest of the land to be practicable. For this, it was divinely disclosed that he alone of the twelve spies would survive to claim an inheritance in Canaan. When the land was later divided Caleb represented his tribe of Judah in the process of division. He settled at Hebron, capturing the town with the aid of Othniel, whom he rewarded with the hand of his daughter, Achsah, along with a large portion of land and springs for irrigation. Numbers 13.6, 30, 31; 14.6-10, 24, 30, 38; 26.65; 32.12; 34.19; Deuteronomy 1.36; Joshua 14.6-14; 15.13-19; 21.12; Judges 1.11-15, 20; 1 Chronicles 2.18, 19, 42-50; 4.15; 6.56

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Canaan was a son of Ham, the supposed ancestor of the people of the same name. Noah cursed Canaan for looking at him as he lay drunk and naked. According to this curse, the descendants of Shem and Japtheth were to gain ascendancy over the offspring of Canaan. The peoples descended from him included the Sidonians, the Hittites, the Jebusites, the Amorites, the Girgashites, the Hivites, the Arkites, the Sinites, the Arvadites, the Zemarites and the Hamathites. Apart from references in the early part of Genesis, the name “Canaan” always refers to the place or nation - not a historic individual. Genesis 9.18, 22-27; 10.15-18; 1 Chronicles 1.8,13-16

Candace (the) was a title given to the queen of the Ethiopians. Acts 8.27

Caphtorim was seventh of the sons of Egypt (or the tribes descended from him). Genesis 10.14

Carkas was one of the seven eunuchs who served Ahasuerus as chamberlains. Esther 1.10

Carmi was Reuben's fourth son, a grandson of Jacob. Genesis 46.9; Exodus 6.14; Numbers 26.6; 1 Chronicles 5.3

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Carpus was a colleague of Paul. Apparently, he left a cloak, books and parchments with Carpus. 2 Timothy 4.13

Carshena was one of the seven privy counsellors of Ahasuerus, who advised him to divorce Vashti and replace her with another queen. Esther 1.14

Casluhim was sixth of the sons of Egypt (or the tribes descended from him). Genesis 10.14

Cephas was the name given to Simon (Peter) by Jesus. The name is the Aramaic term for rock but is normally transliterated as the Greek equivalent “Peter” (or “Petros”) in the New Testament. The Aramaic form is used in John's gospel and certain of Paul's letters. John 1.42; 1 Corinthians 1.12; 3.22; 9.5; 15.5; Galatians 1.18; 2.9-14

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Chedorlaomer was a king of Elam who formed an alliance with the kings of Shinar, Ellasar, and Goiim against the kings of Sodom, Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboiim and Bela. The latter kings, having been long subject to Chedorlaomer and his allies, rebelled, but were defeated in battle and taken prisoner along with Lot. Abraham pursued the victors and, in a surprise attack, overcame them and freed his kinsman. Genesis 14.4,5, in which Chedorlaomer's name appears alone, would seem to suggest that he was the leader of the confederacy. Genesis 14.1-15, 17

Chenaanah was the father of the false prophet Zedekiah. 1 Kings 22.11, 24, 25; 2 Chronicles 18.10, 23, 24

Chenani was a Levite, an official who presided over the public service of worship and confession led by Nehemiah. Nehemiah 9.4

Chenaniah was a musical director of the singers who attended David's installation of the ark in Jerusalem, according to the Chronicler. 1 Chronicles 15.22, 27

Chesed was the fourth child of Nahor and Milcah. Genesis 22.22

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Chileab was the second son of David, his first by Abigail, born at Hebron. 2 Samuel 3.3

Chilion was the son of Elimelech and Naomi, brother of Mahlon (Ruth's husband) and husband of Orpah. Chilion and his brother died prematurely while in Moab. Ruth 1.2, 5; 4.9

Chimham was the servant (or son, perhaps?) of Barzillai. After quelling Absalom's rebellion, David wished to reward all who had helped him in his successful campaign, among whom was Barzillai. Turning down the king's offer of a life of luxury in Jerusalem, Barzillia nominated in his place Chimham, who returned to the capital as David's servant. 2 Samuel 19.37-40

Chloe was a Corinthian Christian who informed Paul of the various factions which existed in her home church. 1 Corinthians 1.11

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Christ is a name or title applied to Jesus. The English form is derived from the Greek “Christos”, which is a translation of the Hebrew word “Messiah” (“anointed one”, that is, someone on whom oil is poured). References appear under “Jesus”.

Chuza was a steward of Herod Antipas, the husband of Joanna. Luke 8.3

Claudia was a Christian mentioned in the closing paragraphs of the second letter to Timothy. 2 Timothy 4.21

Claudius was a Roman emperor (ruled 41-54 A.D.) the successor to Gaius (Caligula). Claudius is twice mentioned by name in Acts: the first reference is to a famine in his reign; the second is to his edict, of A.D. 49, that all Jews should leave Rome. Acts 11.28; 18.2

Claudius Lysias was a Roman tribune who rescued Paul from a mob in Jerusalem and transferred him to the custody of the procurator, Felix. Claudius intended at first to scourge his prisoner, but was dissuaded from doing so by his discovery of Paul's Roman citizenship. Acts 21.31-23.30

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Clement was an assistant of Paul; referred to in his letter to the Philippians. Philippians 4.3

Cleopas was a disciple of Jesus, one of two to whom Christ appeared, after his resurrection, on the road to Emmaus. Not recognising Jesus, Cleopas explained to him the events leading up to, and following, his crucifixion. Later, preparing to eat supper with the two, Jesus was recognised as he broke bread, but at once disappeared, leaving Cleopas and his companion to return swiftly to Jerusalem, to tell the other disciples of this encounter. Cleopas may be the same as Clopas who is identified in John 19.25 as the husband of Mary, one of Jesus' followers. Luke 24.13-35

Conaniah (1) was a Levite, appointed by Hezekiah to collect the people's tithes, according to the Chronicler. 2 Chronicles 31.12

Conaniah (2) was a Levite of Josiah's court, one of those who made a large donation of animals for sacrifice in the king's great Passover festival, according to the Chronicler. 2 Chronicles 35.9

Coniah is the name used by the prophet Jeremiah for Jehoiachin. Jeremiah 22.24-30; 37.1

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Cornelius was a centurion of the Italian Cohort, which some historians identify as the Cohors II. Italica Civium Romanorum. Corneliius was a gentile worshipper of God, instructed in a vision to send for Peter, who came in response to his request, and proclaimed the gospel to Cornelius, his household and friends. All accepted the Christian faith and were baptised by Peter, this baptism later attracting strong criticism from conservative Jewish Christians, to whom Peter was obliged to justify his action. Acts 10.1-11.18

Cosam was the son of Elmadam, father of Addi and ancestor of Joseph in Luke's genealogy. Luke 3.28

Cozbi, a Midianite was the daughter of Zur and wife of Zimri, at the time of the Exodus. As mixed marriage was forbidden to the Jews, Phinehas killed both Cozbi and Zimri. According to Numbers the harassing of Midianites (who had supposedly beguiled Israelites into such unlawful marriages) was divinely sanctioned, following Phinehas's killing of Zimri and Cozbi. Numbers 25.6-18

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Crescens was apparently an associate of Paul, whom Crescens left to go to Galatia. 2 Timothy 4.10

Crispus was the ruler of the Jewish synagogue in Corinth, baptised as a Christian by Paul, who refers to the baptism in his first letter to Corinth. Acts 18.8; 1 Corinthians 1.8-10

Cush (1) was the son of Ham, father of Nimrod, Seba, Havilah, Sabtah, Raamah and Sabteca, and an ancestor of the Cushites. Genesis 10.6-8; 1 Chronicles 1.8-10

Cush (2) was a Benjaminite, apparently an enemy of David, and named in the superscription to one of the psalms attributed to the king. Psalms 7

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Cushite (the) was a young man, identified only by race, otherwise anonymous, who carried from Joab to David the news of Absalom's defeat and death. 2 Samuel 18.21-32

Cushan-rishathaim was a Mesopotamian king who conquered Israel and kept the land in vassalage for eight years, until killed by Othniel. Judges 3.8-10

Cyrus was a ruler of Persia (ruled ca. 555 B.C.?) and later king of the Medes and Persians. After his overthrow of Babylon Cyrus in 538 B.C. authorised the return of exiled Jews, this return being seen as fulfilment of a prophecy of Jeremiah. Cyrus is referred to in Isaiah, where he is praised as deliverer of Israel. According to Ezra, Cyrus restored to the sanctuary in Jerusalem the various consecrated vessels removed to Babylon. During the reign of Darius, when rebuilding work on the Jerusalem temple met opposition, a document came to light, in which Cyrus authorised the rebuilding work. 2 Chronicles 36.22, 23; Ezra 1.1-8; 3.7; 4.3, 5; 5.13-6.5, 14; Daniel 1.21; 6.28

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