Author logo GCSE wide reading: A Christmas Carol

Getting started
Background information
Responding to the text
Ideas for responses
Ideas for writing
What happens in A Christmas Carol?
GCSE prose study
Prompts for responses
Grade descriptions
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This is a self-contained guide to Charles Dickens' A Christmas Carol. It is written to help students who are reading this book for work in school. It is suitable for pupils and teachers in England and Wales who are working in the National Curriculum. It should support work in Key Stages 3 and 4 especially. Part of the guidance gives specific support for students preparing a response to reading in GCSE exams.

Getting started

There are various ways to get to know the story. You may be able to read it, on your own, or you may listen to an audio recording or live reading. Alternatively you may watch a dramatization.

A Christmas Carol is unusual in the huge range of versions that have been made - as well as Dickens' original there are books in print, radio and TV dramatizations, feature films and animations. Some are very true to the original, while others may be very loose adaptations.

All of these may help you learn the outline of the story and the characters. The very free adaptations are useful, for seeing what things from the original are kept. Those that use Dickens' narrative and dialogue will give you a more accurate idea of what the novella is about. But to understand the story in enough detail to respond to it - in writing or speaking - for an assessment, you will need to look at some or all of the original text. You can get printed editions published for schools, which have simple glossaries (explaining unusual words and phrases).

You can find many electronic versions of the text on Web sites - these enable you to quote, or copy from, A Christmas Carol without having to enter the text for yourself. These may also have notes and commentaries that will help you understand the story, its themes and characters.

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Some background information

A Christmas Carol is a long story of the kind sometimes called a novella (big for a story but too short to be a novel). Charles Dickens wrote it in 1843, the first of a series of what he called Christmas Books. It quickly became popular, and it has influenced the way people in Britain think of Christmas - indeed, some people think that Dickens almost invented our ideas about the season. Ebenezer Scrooge has become perhaps better known than the book he appears in - as has his catchphrase, "Bah, humbug". An outline of the story

A Christmas Carol is a story about change. Ebenezer Scrooge is a selfish and hard-hearted old man. One Christmas Eve the ghost of his former business partner, Jacob Marley appears to him. Marley was almost as selfish as Scrooge, and now his spirit is being punished. He tells Scrooge that he must change his ways, and explains that three more ghosts will visit him. These three spirits show Scrooge his past, his present and a possible future.

In the past lies the start of Scrooge's selfishness, which is completed in the present. The third ghost shows a glimpse of a future where Scrooge dies, unloved and unlamented. Many people are harmed by Scrooge's hardness of heart, but we read most about the family of Scrooge's employee, Bob Cratchit, and his disabled son, Tiny Tim, whose death the second spirit describes, while the third spirit shows the effect of the death on his family.

Scrooge wakes after the visit of the last of the spirits, to find it is Christmas Day, and that he is able to change things for the better. He immediately sets out to help the Cratchit family, and others, while beginning to put right the wrongs of the past and the present. Tiny Tim does not die, and Scrooge becomes as kind as he once was selfish.

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Responding to the text for assessed work

What do I have to do? | How can I present this work? | Different forms of response

This guidance is aimed at students studying the novella for assessment in GCSE exams. (This is a type of exam used in most parts of the United Kingdom, except Scotland.) You need to know what you are mean to do, and how you can present it. This section is particularly relevant to the Prose Study task of the AQA's Specification A exam.

What do I have to do?

Broadly speaking you have to do three things. You need to comment on, or explain:

  • What the novella is about - its characters, incidents and themes.
  • The author's technique - structure, style, characterization.
  • The author's use of language (really this is a part of his technique, but examiners think it so important that it has its own section in the criteria for assessment).

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How can I present this work?

You can respond to the text in writing, or by a spoken presentation. If you do it this way, you can either do it live, or make a recording.

  • In the first case, your teacher will listen to your presentation and assess it at the time, keeping a record of the assessment for the examiners.
  • In the second case, your teacher can make the assessment at any time, and can also present the recording to the examiners, if they wish to look at your folder of work. While this is not very practical using analog recording technology, it is well-suited to use of digital audio recording.

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Different forms of response

You can show your understanding of the story in many different ways. Very simply, you can write an essay or commentary, which shows what you think of the themes, characters and incidents of the story, and the writer's technique, with a focus on language.

Alternatively, you could use an imaginative response - such as writing Ebenezer Scrooge's Obituary, or a statement by one or more of the characters about his or her view of events.

You could present your response as an interview - with the help of a friend or teacher, to ask questions. (Using digital audio recording, you could even ask the questions and give the answers, in a different voice…) In this case, you can answer simply as an expert on the novella, or you could do so in the character of, say, Scrooge, Bob Cratchit, Tiny Tim and so on.

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Ideas for responses

A general commentary | Interviews and hot-seating | Mixed media

A general commentary

Introduction | Themes | Characters | Supernatural elements | Structure | More techniques | The importance of Christmas | Language

This could be done in speaking or writing. You may want to give it a title, such as "How does Dickens present Ebenezer Scrooge in A Christmas Carol?" or "How does Dickens show the process of Scrooge's redemption?" - the important word here is "how". Examiners will often value comments about the writer's technique more highly than descriptions of what the book is about.

You may find this general outline helpful.

An introduction

Can you explain what the novella is about in a sentence or two? Try, anyway. (You can use the information that appears in this guide.)

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The theme or themes of the story

This is the underlying subject, as opposed to the obvious outward story. Here are some suggestions for themes. Do you agree that the novella is about any of them? Or do you have a different idea?

The novella is about

  • moral responsibility
  • the possibility of change
  • the real meaning of Christmas
  • our duty to our fellow man and woman
  • redemption
  • the right and the wrong ways to use money
  • that man's offences carry their own punishment

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The characters of the novella

It is possible, but not very helpful, to describe them at length. A better idea might be to focus on a few characters, and show how they change or stay the same. Marley is beyond the possibility of change, but Scrooge can be saved. We see how Scrooge has changed for the worse, before the novella starts, but how he changes very much for the better in the course of the story.

You can also look at how what happens to Scrooge changes things for others - such as the Cratchit family.

Finally, you might look at the people in the story - not really fully-drawn characters - who are there to show the reader something about Scrooge: Bella, Dick Wilkins, Mr. Fezziwig, Caroline, and so on.

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The supernatural elements

Why are these important in the story? They are not like ghosts in a conventional ghost story (that are meant to be frightening) - but they are powerful, and each is very different from the others.

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The structure of the story

Comment on the way the story has two chapters which are like a prologue and epilogue, framing the three central chapters (or staves) where the three spirits visit Scrooge.

How does each visit build on the previous one?

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More techniques

Comment on such things as:

  • Imagery and symbolism .
  • Irony.
  • Contrasts (wealth and poverty; cruelty and kindness; Marley's damnation and Scrooge's salvation...)

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The importance of Christmas
  • The story is named A Christmas Carol. Could it have been set at any other season? Is Christmas used simply as a seasonal setting, or is it an important idea in the novella?
  • How far does the Christmas season, or the way people behave then, help Scrooge to see that he must change?
  • Comment on the way that Dickens uses details of Christmas in the story - for example, food, decorations, parties, Christmas customs, and charity.

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There are far too many features of language to list them all here. You will need to find your own examples, but look for things like these:

  • Dialogue: how does Dickens use conversation and speech here to show character and situation. You might compare various conversations - Scrooge's rather defiant manner with Marley, the seriousness of Scrooge's conversations with the spirits, the friendliness and love of the Cratchits' talk at home, the way Scrooge talks to Bob at the start and the end of the novella, and so on.
  • Poetic comparisons: the novella is full of vivid metaphor and simile - you can find examples in almost every paragraph. Look for some that you particularly like, and explain why.
  • Repetition: Look at the number of times that Scrooge says "Good afternoon" to his nephew in the first stave - why does he do this? What effect does this have on the reader? Can you find other uses of repetition? If so, explain how they work...
  • Humour: The story has many examples of verbal humour. There is one below. Can you explain it? Dickens is describing the apartment where Scrooge lives. Does Dickens want the reader to believe this literally? Or is something else happening here?
"They were a gloomy suite of rooms, in a lowering pile of building up a yard, where it had so little business to be, that one could scarcely help fancying it must have run there when it was a young house, playing at hide-and-seek with other houses, and forgotten the way out again."

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Interviews and hot seating

Another way to show your understanding of the novella is in one or more interviews - you could speak as

  • yourself, giving your opinion of the book that you have read, or as
  • the writer, Charles Dickens, explaining some of the things that you have written, or as
  • one or more of the characters in the novella, speaking about events that happened to you, or of which you have since learned.

If you do this, you will need to have some ideas about how to answer questions or respond to prompts. You may also need someone else (your teacher or another student) to ask these questions or conduct the interview.

  • You can present this as a live activity, which your teacher will assess at the time, or shortly afterwards.
  • You can also use digital audio recording and editing software, to produce the interview in a more polished form - that is, you can take more time to prepare each answer or comment. But the resulting interview could seem more fluent and natural to the listener, as you can edit out any awkward gaps, or replace things you do not like

You can make recordings in mp3 format using Audacity and in Real Audio format using Helix Producer Basic. Both recording programs allow you to edit audio files and add your own FX. To play these files you will need a media player such as RealOne Player or Windows Media Player.

Hot seating is a more improvised kind of interviewing - you prepare to speak in character (for example, to be Tiny Tim or Ebenezer Scrooge). Then other people (pupils and your teachers) fire questions at you.

In English GCSE, if you use this approach, your work can be assessed both for speaking and listening, and for reading.

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Mixed media

You could use an approach that uses both written text (and possibly images) and spoken comment. This is possible using computer software such as presentation graphics or digital movie making.

One possible approach here would be to combine spoken commentary, and reading of some of the text of the novella, with explanations or comment that appear as text (which could be static or moving) within the digital movie.

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Ideas for original writing

Scrooge's obituary | Adapting the story | Letter-writing

Scrooge's Obituary

When a well-known person dies, an account of his or her life is published in newspapers (with a brief report of the death). This is an obituary. To see how these are written, you may wish to look at some real obituaries. You can write two versions of Ebenezer Scrooge's obituary: one, as it would have appeared if he had not changed (the vision of the future that we see in Stave 4) and his real obituary, after his change for the better at the end of the novella.

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Adapting the story

Dickens' stories, especially this one, have frequently been made into feature films, animations, stage-plays, musicals and comic strips. You could try re-telling part of the story in another form.

  • You could use dialogue (conversation) with some linking bits of narrative (story) to create a play for voices (you could record this as a digital audio file, too).
  • Alternatively, you could design a storyboard for a film or animation.

If you can think of other ways of re-working the story, you may be allowed to try these, too: ask your teacher for guidance. Alternatively, you could compare the original story with one or more of the adaptations, discussing the ways in which other people have interpreted Dickens' work.

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Letter writing

This novel suggests some interesting possibilities for letters that might be written. You might wish to write some of these, using evidence in the story where you can, and using guesswork to fill in gaps. Possible letters are as follows:

  • a letter from Scrooge's creditor (Caroline's husband; Stave 4) asking for more time to repay his debt, and Scrooge's reply;
  • letters from Bob Cratchit or Scrooge's nephew to friends, explaining how they have spent this Christmas (telling of Scrooge's changed behaviour);
  • a series of letters, some years after the events of the novella, between Tiny Tim and his "second father".

These are only suggestions: you may be able to think of many more letters to write. You may wish to try a handwriting style that looks authentic for the Victorian period, and to use old-fashioned language (but this is not essential). Or you could read the letters aloud, and make a recording of them.

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What happens in A Christmas Carol?

Stave 1 | Stave 2 | Stave 3 | Stave 4 | Stave 5

Stave 1: Marley's Ghost

Here the reader meets Ebenezer Scrooge, a miserable but wealthy old man. Scrooge works in his counting house with his clerk, Bob Cratchit.

Bob writes out records of accounts and Scrooge oversees the business but we don't know (it's not important) what it exactly does. (There may be a clue in the next chapter, where we see Scrooge as an apprentice with Mr. Fezziwig.) It is Christmas Eve, and Scrooge receives several visitors.

One is his nephew, Fred, who invites Scrooge to dine with him for Christmas. Then come two gentlemen who are collecting for charity. We learn here that Scrooge had a partner, Jacob Marley, who died on Christmas Eve seven years previously.

Scrooge refuses to give the gentlemen anything, saying he helps the poor already through supporting prisons and workhouses. Scrooge allows Bob to have Christmas Day as a holiday, but insists that he be back at work all the earlier next day. (Boxing Day was not usually a holiday in the 19th century, but was the day when tradesmen collected their Christmas "boxes" - gifts from their customers.)

When Scrooge returns to his lodging he is visited by the Ghost of Jacob Marley who is weighed down by a massive chain, made up of cashboxes, keys and padlocks. The ghost says that any spirit which does not mix with other people in life must travel among them after death. Marley tells Scrooge that he, too, wears a chain, larger than Marley's. Marley has often sat by him unseen. Now he warns him of three more spirits which will visit to help him change his ways.

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Stave 2: The First of the Three Spirits

This is the Ghost of Christmas Past - Scrooge's own past. The ghost has a strange changing form and gives out brilliant light. With it Scrooge revisits the scenes of his earlier life.

We see him as a boy at school (a boarding school)on two occasions. First, he sits alone in a cold schoolroom - but as the spirit touches the arm of the child we see the characters of whom he is reading: Ali Baba and the parrot in Robinson Crusoe. Later we see him with his (slightly) older sister, Fan, who has come to bring him home for the holidays. We learn that his father (who seems once to have been unkind) become "much kinder than he used to be". The ghost notes that (unlike Scrooge so far) his sister had a "large heart". She has died, but her son is Scrooge's nephew, Fred.

Next we see Scrooge as a young apprentice working for Mr. Fezziwig, in his warehouse. At seven o'clock on Christmas Eve, Mr. Fezziwig tells Scrooge and his other apprentice, Dick Wilkins, to make the warehouse ready for a party. Everyone is welcome at Mr. Fezziwig's ball, and the young Scrooge enjoys it immensely. The Ghost tells Scrooge that Mr. Fezziwig has done nothing special, only spent a little money he can easily afford. Scrooge replies that it is impossible to add up things like words and looks, but "the happiness" Mr. Fezziwig gives "is quite as great as if it cost a fortune".

The final scenes show us Belle, Scrooge's ex-fiancée. Scrooge is now in the prime of life. His (reasonable) fear, when younger, of being poor has now become an unreasonable love of money. Belle releases Scrooge from his engagement because she can see that he no longer loves her. He has not asked her to break the engagement but does not object to her decision. Another glimpse of Belle follows. Some years later - seven years before the present, she sits with her daughter. (At first Scrooge thinks the daughter is Belle, but she is now older. She has other children, too. Her husband tells her how he saw Scrooge that day, working alone in his office, while his partner, Marley, was lying "upon the point of death". Scrooge contrasts his life with hers and her husband's. While they have a happy Christmas together, he is working alone. They are not wealthy as he is but not poor financially. In other ways they are far richer than he. Scrooge thinks of how good it would be to have a daughter like Belle's to look up to him.

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Stave 3: The Second of the Three Spirits

This spirit is the Ghost of Christmas Present. It is a great giant, dressed in a green robe (a little like a green version of our Father Christmas) and surrounded by piles of food.

This spirit shows Scrooge how Christmas is celebrated by his clerk's family, by strangers near and far, and by his nephew, Fred. The spirit carries a torch and everywhere it goes this torch sprinkles incense or water on people and makes them become kinder to each other.

Scrooge has never been to Bob Cratchit's house. Here he sees how the Cratchits, despite being very poor, can be happy at Christmas. Bob and Mrs. Cratchit struggle because their family is large: there are six children. (Martha, Belinda, Peter, two unnamed "young Cratchits", and Tiny Tim.) Scrooge sees how frail Tiny Tim is, and asks the Spirit if he will live. The ghost tells him that unless something changes in the future, the child will die. When Scrooge protests he is reminded of his words earlier (Stave 1): "If he be like to die he had better do it and decrease the surplus population".

The ghost takes Scrooge magically to places outside London: he sees a family of miners in a hut on a barren moor, two lighthouse keepers and sailors on a ship: all know what day it is and celebrate it as far as they can. All of them are made more aware of other people and feel more kindly towards them because it is Christmas.

Fred (Scrooge's nephew) is having a party, and Scrooge is brought by the spirit to see and hear it. Scrooge's nephew explains that Scrooge is to be pitied, not despised. He is rich but his money does him no good, and, as Fred says, "his offences carry their own punishment". The guests play a guessing game, to find the identity of a thing, in which questions can be answered only with Yes and No. Everyone is amused when Fred's wife's sister guesses that the mystery object is Scrooge.

The chapter has a strange ending. The spirit ages and shrinks as midnight draws near (because he lives for, and represents, one year only - he has had more than eighteen hundred brothers). Now Scrooge sees, under its robe, two horribly dirty and ugly children. The ghost tells him that they are not his but "man's" and that "This boy is Ignorance this girl is Want". Scrooge is told to beware of them both. When he asks if nothing can be done to help them the ghost again quotes his earlier words: "Are there no prisons? Are there no work-houses". He feels deep shame, as the ghost disappears, and he sees, coming towards him, the last of the spirits.

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Stave 4: The Last of the Spirits

In this chapter Scrooge is again taken to places he does not know. The spirit is more like the kind of ghost we meet in conventional ghost stories. It is a hooded phantom, its face is unseen and it points at things but does not speak.

We are puzzled by a group of wealthy men, discussing someone who has died. This person seems very unpopular. In another poor and squalid part of London a pawn-broker, Old Joe, buys stolen property from three people: a laundrywoman (Mrs. Dilber), a charwoman (a cleaner) and the undertaker's assistant. All these poor people have taken things from the dead man - even the curtains from his bed and the shirt off his back.

Scrooge asks to see some "emotion caused by this man's death". He sees two scenes. First, a young couple who owed the man money. The wife (Caroline) fears they are ruined but her husband says there is hope now their creditor is dead. The debt will be transferred to someone else, but no-one else could be so merciless as the man who has died.

Next Scrooge returns with the ghost to the Cratchits' home. They, too are talking about death and preparing for a funeral. They all try hard to comfort and support each other. It becomes clear that they are grieving for Tiny Tim, who has died. He is to be buried in a beautiful green churchyard. Bob comes home from work and goes to sit with his son, who has obviously only just died.

Scrooge is horrified but still has to learn the identity of the mysterious dead man. He is shown to an ugly churchyard "overrun by grass and weeds" in the town, and here sees on the gravestone his own name. He realizes (the reader has already guessed) that he is the man about whom the others were talking.

Scrooge begs the spirit to tell him whether he has seen what will be or what may be only. He thinks the spirit is showing pity to him and promises he will change.

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Stave 5: The End of It

This chapter is very short. Scrooge wonders how much time has passed while he was with the spirits, and calls to a boy from his window, to ask what day it is. The boy is surprised by the questions as it is Christmas Day. Scrooge pays the boy to go to the poulterer (like a butcher but specializes in poultry) and order the prize turkey for Bob Cratchit. Out in the street he meets one of the gentlemen he earlier sent away. He whispers to him, but the reader guesses that he promises to give a lot of money to the charity, as the gentlemen doubts whether he is serious. Scrooge explains that his donation includes "a great many back-payments".

Scrooge goes to Fred's house and enjoys his party immensely. On Boxing Day he arrives early at work and ambushes Bob, pretending to be very angry with him for his being so late at work. He tells Bob that he will not "stand for this sort of thing any longer" as if he is about to sack him. Then he tells Bob, he is therefore going to raise his salary. Bob at first thinks Scrooge has gone mad, but is convinced when Scrooge tells him to put more coal on the fire rather than work, and that he will discuss his affairs over a drink that afternoon.

The story ends with an account of how Scrooge becomes a "second father" to Tiny Tim "who did NOT die" but receives no more visits from the ghosts. He changes his way of life entirely. Some people laugh at him, but he lets them laugh and is happy with his new outlook on life. Dickens ends by repeating Tiny Tim's Christmas blessing: "God bless Us, Every One!"

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This novella is dominated by one character, Ebenezer Scrooge. The point of the story is to show how and why he changes. It is easy to overlook the change he has already experienced which is shown when he revisits his past in Stave 2. As a child he enjoys the pleasures of the imagination, and he is close to his sister. As a young man working for Mr. Fezziwig he has not become greedy for gain. But a reasonable fear of poverty which drives him to work to gain security against hardship becomes his dominant passion. Fred is right in pitying Scrooge because he does not find any pleasure in his wealth: he does not spend on himself any more than on others. Either because of what he once was or because of what he can be or because he feels to blame for what Scrooge is, Marley comes to warn him that he must change.

Though the first two spirits tell Scrooge some things, he sees most for himself. His own statements and feelings are the biggest clue to his changing attitude. He also has the unusual experience of seeing himself as others see him. He repeatedly makes connections. Seeing himself as a small boy he thinks of the carol singer outside his door. When he sees his sister, Fan, he thinks of how harsh he has been to her son. But most of all he is affected by the sight of the person he is most able to help, Tiny Tim. Until the visit of the second spirit, Scrooge has not even known of the child's existence.

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Dickens describes Scrooge by likening him to the winter weather, while noting that no weather has any effect on him. There is no hint that this sinister figure will become the comical Scrooge of the last chapter.

Finally in this brief sketch we should note that Scrooge is a caricature but represents very real tendencies. Dickens himself knew how harsh debt could be, working from childhood to assist his own "struggling family", his father having been sent to the Marshalsea, a debtors' prison. Why does Dickens choose to depict an old person? Perhaps to show that no-one is too set in his or her ways to change, and that change is possible even late in life. Scrooge has become one of Dickens' best-known creations. His name has become a byword for meanness - though it seems unfair that we recall him before his life-changing experience. His pet-phrase "Bah, humbug" has also taken on a life of its own, though it is worth remembering that in saying it Scrooge was complaining not generally but specifically about the "humbug" (or fraud) as he saw it of people being paid to take time off work.

There are many names in A Christmas Carol but few of these are characters in any sense. Often they come in groups, so we see a "knot of business men", three people selling Scrooge's goods to the pawn-broker or a husband and wife (Caroline) whom Scrooge does not know, but whose lives he has affected.

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The three spirits and Marley are unusual in that Scrooge listens to them. At first he resists, but he rapidly learns not to oppose them. Where Marley is grotesquely comic, the first spirit is gentle and pitying, the second hearty and authoritative, and the third silently compelling.

We learn more of the members of Scrooge's family. His sister, Fan, though physically frail, tries to help her brother and works to improve his relations with their father. Fred has inherited her good nature and is as obstinate in his kindness as Scrooge is bad-tempered. Scrooge has no other family but his fiancée, Belle, is the first to see how money has changed him. She rejects money and finds happiness in her family.

Finally, there are those whom we see at work. Dick Wilkins is little more than a name, but Mr. Fezziwig is depicted very fully: a large kind man whose jollity is infectious. He is best judged by the company he keeps - almost every deserving poor person is welcome at his ball. Scrooge notes how Fezziwig has the power to make people happy or unhappy. Scrooge has the same power but he and Fezziwig use it in opposite ways. Best-known of all these characters are the Cratchits - two of them, anyway. Mrs. Cratchit and five of the children are sketched out but we see more of Bob and Tiny Tim. Bob is like a poor version of Fred in speaking up for Scrooge when his wife complains of him. In Scrooge's vision of Tiny Tim's death, Bob remarks on how kind Scrooge's nephew was to him. Tiny Tim is among the most famous disabled characters in literature. We do not know the cause of his lameness and today we would be uneasy about calling a child a "cripple", as Tiny Tim calls himself. In Stave 3 we are moved by Tiny Tim's courage and cheerfulness, in spite of his poverty and disability. In the next chapter we are moved again by the way the rest of the family comfort each other and remember the child. The scene is unashamedly sentimental but very moving. Happily, Dickens is able to reassure us that Tiny Tim does not die, and to give him the last word in the novella.

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Like many of Dickens' novels this one is set mainly in London some time in the middle of the 19th century. Because the story is relatively short, the locations are only sketched. There are some sumptuous descriptions of interiors, especially the transformation of Scrooge's home by the Ghost of Christmas Present and the preparations (Stave 2) for Mr. Fezziwig's ball.

We also see into the homes of Fred, the Cratchits, Belle and Caroline. In Stave 3 Dickens leaves London for a barren moor, a lighthouse and a ship at sea, while Scrooge's boarding school (Stave 2) is in a "little market-town" complete with a "church and winding river".

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The most important themes of the story are stated more or less clearly by characters in it. The first of these might be Marley's saying, " Business...Mankind was my business" . Where Scrooge sees business in the familiar sense of trade and finance, Marley now sees that one's " business " is what one should do in life, duty or obligation. Mankind is or was not just Marley's business of course, but Scrooge's business, your business and mine, in fact, everyone's.

Scrooge's unkind remark that poor people should die and " reduce the surplus population " brings us to another theme of the story. When Scrooge asks if Tiny Tim will die he is reminded of these words. Why? Because the " surplus population " is not an abstraction but real individuals. Scrooge is told by the Ghost of Christmas Present to find out " What the surplus is, and Where it is " before making such statements.

Another theme is that change is possible however set we are in our ways. Dickens imagines the most miserable and hard-hearted man he can, and shows how he can be reformed if he sees his reponsibilities.

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Structure | Dialogue | Irony | Imagery | Food


The structure of the story is determined by its content. In the middle are three chapters which relate the visits of the three spirits. These are framed by two chapters which serve as prologue and epilogue. Marley's Ghost introduces us to Scrooge and his moral failings while Stave 5 is a very brief account of how Scrooge reforms. Assuming that Dickens is in control of his story-telling you might consider why the final chapter is much the shortest.

The three central chapters correspond to times in Scrooge's life: his past; the present as it is for other people, many of whom are affected by Scrooge's unkindness; and his future as it may be or will be, if he does not change.

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A very obvious technique in this story is the extensive use of dialogue (speech) to show what people think or feel. Dickens writes speech like a dramatist: it is interesting that so many film and television dramatizations of A Christmas Carol have been made. It is a convenient length and has an almost ready-made screenplay in the passages of conversation.

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Irony and playing Devil's advocate

Another technique is what we might term playing Devil's advocate: in many situations the spirits do not tell Scrooge why he is in the wrong, but let him see it for himself. The first two spirits especially do this. The Ghost of Christmas Past argues (ironically, no doubt) that Mr. Fezziwig has done nothing special, causing Scrooge to praise his generosity. And the Ghost of Christmas Present quotes Scrooge's own earlier words so that Scrooge can see why they are wrong. Elsewhere, of course, this ghost and Marley's, do tell Scrooge why he is wrong.

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Imagery and symbolism

Though Dickens writes prose narratives he is fond of comparisons of the kind we expect in poetry. There are far too many to mention here, but a few stand out. First, we should look at the passage in Stave 1 where Scrooge is described in a series of weather images. A memorable poetic image comes where the Ghost of Christmas Present compares people to insects, and the wealthy Scrooge is ridiculed for looking down on other "insects" who have less to live on:

"Oh God! to hear the insect on the leaf pronouncing on the too much life among his hungry brothers in the dust!"

This is written in the iambic metre, like Shakespearean verse. (For the technically-minded there is a pentameter ending at "leaf", followed by a tetrameter and another pentameter starting with "among".)

An important symbol in A Christmas Carol appears in Stave 1, where Marley is weighed down by a massive chain, and tells Scrooge he has an even longer chain: it was as long as Marley's seven years ago, and he has "laboured on it since" This chain, made up of cash-boxes, padlocks , purses and business documents, represents Scrooge's achievement in life - earning money which weighs down his spirit.

At the end of Stave 3, Scrooge sees under the robe of the Ghost of Christmas Present, two children, whose names show that they are symbols: Ignorance and Want. Dickens sees that a lack of education and extreme poverty make it impossible for anyone to have a good life. Of the two, the Ghost tells Scrooge to beware the boy " most of all" because ignorance allows poverty to continue.

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One final technique to mention in this brief sketch is Dickens' descriptions of food. The modern reader may find this a little strange, although our ideas about eating and drinking at Christmas owe something to Dickens. Dickens' readers would not have homes so full of food as we do today. Because there were no freezers or tins most food would be bought when it was needed. And many people would not keep much food in the home, but, like Scrooge, would take their meals in public houses. (He has a hob with a pan of gruel on it.) Christmas is the one time in the year when the Cratchits can eat a filling meal. The description of Scrooge's room in Stave 3 becomes at one point a long list of foods heaped up "to form a kind of throne".

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Prompts for responses

Stave 1 | Stave 2 | Stave 3 | Stave 4 | Stave 5

Stave 1 - Marley's Ghost
  • What do we learn of Scrooge from his behaviour at the start of the story?
  • Comment on anything he says which reveals his character.
  • Why is Marley so miserable?
  • What does Marley tell Scrooge is to happen to him, and why?

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Stave 2 - The First of the Three Spirits
  • The Ghost of Christmas Past shows Scrooge his own past from boyhood to manhood. Comment on the glimpses the reader has of the younger Scrooge in each episode.
  • Why might we be surprised by Scrooge's conduct before Mr. Fezziwig's ball?
  • How is Scrooge changing over the years?
  • How does the older Scrooge react to what he sees here?

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Stave 3 - The Second of the Three Spirits
  • The Ghost of Christmas Present shows Scrooge how Christmas is celebrated both by people he knows and by various humble strangers in far away places. What does he learn by witnessing these poor people (the miners, the sailors and the lighthouse-keepers)?
  • What does he see when he enters his nephew's house?
  • How and why is Scrooge so deeply affected by his visit to the Cratchits.
  • Comment on the Ghost's reply to Scrooge's question about whether Tiny Tim will live.
  • Why does the Ghost quote Scrooge's earlier speech about decreasing the "surplus population"?
  • What does the Ghost mean when he speaks about "the Insect on the Leaf" and "his hungry brothers in the dust"?
  • What are the horrible creatures, which Scrooge sees under the Spirit's robe?
  • Why does the Spirit ask: "Are there no prisons...Are there no work-houses"?

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Stave 4 - The Last of the Spirits
  • The Ghost of Christmas Yet to Come does not speak, but shows Scrooge things which may happen in the future. Scrooge hopes they are things that may be, rather than things that will be. What does he see happening to himself, in the future?
  • Comment on his failure, for most of this episode, to realize that the man whose death is foreseen here is himself.
  • What does Scrooge see possibly happening to the Cratchits?

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Stave 5 - The End of It
  • How does Scrooge behave when he learns that it is still only Christmas Day?
  • After the gloomy scenes in the previous chapter, what is the effect on the reader of Scrooge's conduct here?
  • Comment on the (very pleasant) tricks Scrooge plays on the Cratchits.
  • What do you think Scrooge whispers to the portly gentleman who had earlier visited his counting house?

  • Why is it right that Tiny Tim should have the last word in the story?

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Writing about A Christmas Carol for GCSE response to reading

The National Curriculum in England and Wales requires pupils in Key Stages 3 and 4 to study at least two prose works, written before the 20th century by authors from a short list. Most GCSE syllabuses (perhaps all - I've not read the lot) require pupils to study at least one such work as part of their examination, either for coursework or the final exam. The AQA requires students to respond to at least one prose work (it could be more) by an author on the list and to write about at least one other literary work by "an author with a well-established critical reputation whose works were published after 1900". These authors are not listed. One rather absurd consequence is that pupils can write about a novel by Thomas Hardy (all published before the 20th century and any of his poems (which includes most of the best ones) published after 1900. Equally absurdly, some of the works of H.G. Wells qualify for the first category while others don't.

The authors whose works of fiction are approved for study under the National Curriculum are: Jane Austen, Charlotte Brontë, Emily Brontë, John Bunyan, Wilkie Collins, Arthur Conan Doyle, Daniel Defoe, Charles Dickens, George Eliot, Henry Fielding, Elizabeth Gaskell, Thomas Hardy, Henry James, Mary Shelley, Robert Louis Stevenson, Jonathan Swift, Anthony Trollope and H.G. Wells.

Curiously, Sir Walter Scott and the author of Vanity Fair, W.M. Thackeray, have been omitted by the philistine who produced this list, along with all the great writers of English born in the USA.

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Grade descriptions

Speaking and listening | Reading

If you are a student, you can use these example descriptions to help you achieve the grade that you need. If you are a teacher, you may find them helpful in guiding your assessment of your pupils' work. They come from an exam board's GCSE specification, but are based on nationally agreed criteria.

Speaking and listening

Grade D
General criteria

Candidates make relevant contributions to talk and are able to organise speech in collaborative contexts, varying their style of delivery as appropriate. They listen attentively and make responses that show some understanding. They are increasingly aware of the need for, and use of, standard English vocabulary and grammar.

  • In individual extended contributions, they use different strategies to engage the listeners' interest.
  • In group interaction, they make a range of effective contributions, taking account of what others say.
  • In drama-focused activities, they develop a credible role which engages the interest of the audience e.g. through intonation.

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Grade B
General criteria

Candidates speak purposefully in a range of contexts of increasing complexity, managing the contributions of others. They listen with some sensitivity and respond accordingly. They show effective use of standard English vocabulary and grammar in a range of situations.

  • In individual extended contributions, they exhibit confidence and fluency in talk and a sensitive awareness of listeners, adapting style of delivery to their needs.
  • In group interaction, they make an impact on discussion through sensitive listening and by challenging and constructive contributions.
  • In drama- focused activities, they create a challenging role, shaping the audience's reactions through the use of different techniques.

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Grade A*
General criteria

Candidates show an exceptionally high ability in handling a wide range of roles. They listen perceptively to a range of complex speech. They are sensitive in their choice of speech style and their use of standard English vocabulary and grammar is mature and assured.

  • In individual extended contributions, they adapt readily to task and audience, communicating complex content and managing listeners' attention through sophisticated styles of delivery.
  • In group interaction, they listen perceptively, making influential and authoritative contributions.
  • In drama- focused activities, they independently create a complex role, making inventive use of a range of appropriate techniques to direct the response of the audience.

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Grade D
General criteria

Candidates give a personal response to literary texts. They show understanding of meaning and some of the ways in which it is conveyed. They comment on aspects of structure, language and theme as well as expressing their views.

Criteria for prose

Candidates show understanding when discussing

  • the writer's attitudes and meaning
  • narrative sequence and structure
  • the writer's language

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Grade B
General criteria

Candidates develop a perceptive personal response. There is understanding of the techniques by which meaning is conveyed and of ways in which readers may respond. They support their responses with detailed references to language, theme, structure and context.

Criteria for prose

Candidates show analytical skill when exploring

  • implications, contemporary relevance and historical context of a text
  • style, structure and characterisation
  • language as characteristic of writer and period

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Grade A*
General criteria

Candidates make cogent and critical responses to texts in which they explore and evaluate alternative and original interpretations. They show flair and precision in developing ideas with reference to structure and presentation. Candidates make subtle and discriminating comparisons within and between texts.

Criteria for prose

Candidates show originality of analysis and interpretation when evaluating

  • moral, philosophical and social significance of a text
  • the writer's narrative craft and appeal to the reader
  • patterns and details of language exploited for implication or suggestion

© Andrew Moore, 2000, 2004; Contact me

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